The audience at the São Paolo’s Museum of Art was waiting to listen to the famous São Paulo University choir. Instead, a choir of 12 laryngectomy patients went on stage and performed All You Need is Love by the Beatles using esophageal voice, prosthesis and electronic larynx. Most of the singers lost their voice due to larynx cancer, as a result of smoking. At the end of the performance, they displayed the sign: LISTEN TO THIS CHOIR’S VOICE: DON’T SMOKE
First the embryonic spinal chord is formed along common sequences and patterns then the nervous system develops from a simple elongated neural tubes. The cranial region then differentiates into several clusters of cells which produce the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain portions.
- a common benign CSF containing cyst within the arachnoid space. They are most common within the middle cranial fossa and may expand the Sylvian fissure. They follow CSF signal on all MRI sequences allowing differentiation from epidermoid cysts which show high DWI signal.
Plain radiograph of a tibia in a patient who is skeletally mature, demonstrating expansion of the metaphysis and diaphysis, endosteal scalloping, and a ground-glass appearance of the matrix, this lesion is characterized by woven ossified tissue and extensive marrow fibrosis, mechanical quality of bones is decreased, as a consequence of this bone fragility, patients have an increased risk of fracture
Circumventricular organs (CVO) are so named because they are positioned at distinct sites around the margin of the ventricular system of the brain.
They are among the few sites in the brain which have an incomplete blood-brain barrier. As a result, neurons located in circumventricular organs can directly sense the concentrations of various compounds, particularly peptide hormones, in the bloodstream, without the need for specialized transport systems which move those compounds across the blood-brain barrier
Circumventricular organs can be classified in two groups:
Area Postrema: has been implicated as a chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting
Subfornical organ (SFO): implicated with osmoregulation and cardiovascular regulation
Organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis (OVLT): involved in osmo- and sodium regulation.
Subcommissural organ (SCO): formed by ependymal and hypendymal cells highly specialized in the secretion of proteins.
Neurohypophysis: stores and releases oxytocin and vasopressin
Pineal gland: secretes melatonin and is associated with circadian rhythms